Thursday, September 1, 2011

Indigenous and Tribal Cultures Bugis

By: Andi Ahmaddin

Bugis or to Ugi 'is one tribe among many tribes in Indonesia. They settled in southern Sulawesi island. But in its development, current Bugis community has spread widely throughout the archipelago.

Bugis deployment throughout the country due to the livelihoods of people generally is fishing and Bugis traders. Some of those who prefer to go abroad are trading and trying (massompe ') in the land of others. Another thing is also due to historical factors Bugis people themselves in the past.

Bugis ancients thought their ancestors were natives who had been visited by a direct incarnation of the "world over" the "down" (Manurung) or from the "underworld" of "up" (Tompo) to bring the norms and social rules to the earth (Pelras The Bugis, 2006).

Generally Bugis people are believed to things to Manurung, does not happen much difference of opinion about this history. So that every person who is an ethnic Bugis, of knowing the origin of existence of the community. The word "Bugis" comes from the word to Ugi, which means the Bugis.

Naming "Ugi" refers to the first king of the Chinese empire (not the Chinese state, but located in South Sulawesi peninsula precisely Sub District Pammana Wajo currently) is La Sattumpugi. When the people of La Sattumpugi calling itself, they refer to their king. They called him as Ugi To or from La Sattumpugi orang-orang/pengikut. He is the father of Sattumpugi We 'and siblings with Cudai Batara Lattu', father of Sawerigading.

Sawerigading itself was the husband of We 'Cudai and gave birth to several children, including La Galigo that makes the greatest literature. Sawerigading Opunna Ware '(Yang Pertuan In Ware) is the story contained in the literary tradition of La Galigo in Bugis society. Sawerigading also known story in the tradition of community Luwuk Banggai, Kaili, Gorontalo, and some other traditions such as the Buton in Sulawesi (Source: / wiki / Suku_Bugis).

Early civilization Bugis people are influenced also by the lives of the characters who lived back then, and told in the greatest literature in the world is contained within the La Galigo or sure 'Galigo by the number of approximately 9000 folio pages and related writings with the royal family tree, the kingdom, diaries, and other records related to both traditional (ade ') and the cultures of the period stipulated in Lontara'. The characters are told in La Galigo, among which is Sawerigading, We 'Opu Sengngeng (Mother Sawerigading), We' Tenriabeng (Mother We 'Cudai), We' Cudai (Wife Sawerigading), and La Galigo (Child Sawerigading and We ' Cudai).

Figures is described in the Sure 'Galigo as the initial formation of Bugis civilization in general. While in Lontara 'It contained the genealogy of noble families and descendants, as well as sage advice to guide people through life in this bugis. Its contents are more likely to messages that regulate social norms, how to relate well with others that apply to the local people and when people go wander in the land of the Bugis people.

The concept of Ade '(Indigenous) and Spirituality (Religion)

The concept of ade '(adat) is a central theme in the legislative texts and the history of the Bugis. However, the term ade 'was merely a substitute for long terms contained in the texts of the pre-Islamic era, social contracts, and agreements that come from that era. Traditional Bugis society refers to the concept pang'ade'reng or "customs", a set of norms related to one another.

In addition to the concept of ade 'generally contained in the draft pang'ade'reng, there is also talk (legal norms), rapang (norm ideals in social life), wari' (norms that regulate society stratification), and sara '(Islamic Law ) (Mattulada, Culture Bugis Makassar: 275-7; La Toa). The characters are known by the Bugis people like Sawerigading, We 'Cudai, La Galigo, We' Tenriabeng, We 'Opu Sengngeng, and others are characters who live in pre-Islamic era.

Is believed these figures have very close relations with gods at heaven. Even told in La Galigo that the twin brother of the Sawerigading We 'Tenriabeng became ruler in heaven. Thus the concept of ade '(indigenous) as well as social contracts, as well as the spirituality that occurred at a time when it refers to the life of the gods believed. The existence of the presentation ceremonies to the ancestors, the offerings on marine authorities, the offerings on the trees are considered sacred, and to the spirits of the local shows that what is believed by traditional Bugis community in those days was still adhered to the belief their predecessors.

However, after the acceptance of Islam in Bugis society, many changes occur primarily at the level of ade '(indigenous) and spirituality. Presentation ceremonies, the belief in spirits, sacred trees almost most no longer do so because contrary to the practice of Islamic law. Islamic influence is very strong in Bugis culture, even down through the generations of people bugis until now all embraced Islam.

Practice the teachings of Islam by the majority of the Bugis community adheres to understand Shafi, and customs applicable and not contrary to Islamic law itself. Culture and customs are heavily influenced by Islamic culture looks at weddings, ritual newborn (aqiqah), ML and tahlil reading letters to the deceased, as well as perform the Hajj duty for those who are capable to carry it out.

The factors that led to the introduction of Islam to the Bugis community at that time also through trade and combat power of the kingdoms at that time. After Bugis many nobles who embraced Islam, then over time eventually accepted the Islamic religion throughout the Bugis community. Application of Islamic Shari'a is also done by the kings of Bone, among napatau 'matanna' tikka 'Sultan Idris Alimuddin Matindroe' Dragon Ri Uléng, La Ma'daremmeng, and Andi Mappanyukki.

The concepts of Islamic teachings is found similarities in the writings Lontara '. The concept of norms and rules that govern human relationships, affection, and mutual respect, and remind each other is also present in Lontara '. It also has a similarity in the principles of human relations in Islam.

Bugis cultures actually applied in everyday life to teach things that are associated with the morals of others, like say tabe '(excuse me) while berbungkuk half body when passing in front of a bunch of old men who are being told, say IYE (in nggih Java language), when answering questions before the express reason, friendliness, and respect for elders and love the young. This is among the teachings of the Bugis in fact contained in Lontara 'that must be realized in daily life by the Bugis community.

Human Bugis

History of the Bugis people are very long, in texts such as literary history and Lontara La Galigo 'tell a good beginnings of civilization Bugis people, the kingdoms, culture and spirituality, customs, and genealogy of noble families. This suggests that the culture and customs should always be preserved as a heritage from our ancestors Bugis people are certainly full of positive values.

But this time was also found lots of value shifts that occur both in understanding and implementing the concepts and principles ade '(adat) and culture of the real Bugis society. Siri culture 'should be upheld and enforced in positive values, has now faded. In the Bugis-Makassar of human life, siri 'is a principal element in them. No one was the most precious values ​​to be defended and maintained in the face of the earth besides siri '.

For Human Bugis-Makassar, siri 'is their soul, their self-esteem, and their dignity. Therefore, to uphold and defend the siri 'is considered to be contaminated or polluted by others, the Bugis-Makassar people willing to sacrifice anything, including the most precious soul for the sake of siri' in their lives. (Hamid Abdullah, Human Bugis-Makassar. 37).

In this day and age, siri 'is no longer defined as something precious and should be maintained. In practice siri 'used as a legitimation of actions that anarchic, violent, and irresponsible. Though the value of siri 'is the sacred value of Bugis society, culture siri' corridor must be maintained at ade '(adat) and Islamic teachings in practice it.

Because that is the true interpretation of the Bugis people. So if viewed as a whole, is actually a human Bugis man full of principles and values ​​ade '(adat) and Islamic teachings in the run his life, as well as the nature pang'ade'reng (customs) attached to them personally.

Those who are able to uphold these principles are a reflection of a Bugis man who fell from the world over (to Manurung) to provide keteladan in bringing social norms and rules on earth.

Author: Graduate Student Dormitory Kaltim "Mangkaliat" Jogjakarta, Member of the Bone Student Forum Yogyakarta (FKMB-Y) and lectures at the Institute of Science & Technology AKPRIND Jogjakarta. Living in Aberdeen.

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